Miss Muriel Matters More…

I have just finished Dr Fern Riddell’s book  ‘Death in Ten Minutes‘ about forgotten suffragette   Kitty Marion.  Riddell’s book reinforced my  opinion that the action taken by some suffragettes was terrorism – I concede my argument is controversial.   She refers, briefly, to a bomb exploding in April 1913 in a train in Davenport Junction, near Stockport.  The modus operandi employed by militant suffragettes was to fill a metal canister with explosives and place it under the seat of a train carriage together with firelighters soaked in resin and oil  then soak seats and carriages with paraffin.  As reported in a contemporary newspaper, the  canister exploded when a London train was passing and according to the driver (I love this detail), ‘A piece of wood struck his engine and knocked off  his tea bottle.’

1913 was the height of the suffragettes ‘Deeds not Words’ militancy and I wondered where my Miss Muriel Matters was at the time – see my previous blog.  She had, after all, been in Manchester in 1908 so was vaguely familiar with the area.  However,  there’s no evidence Muriel, unlike Kitty, belonged to the active branch of the suffragettes especially as Muriel was a member of the Women’s Freedom League, a breakaway group from the control freakery of the Pankhursts.

A quick blast through the British Newspaper Archive took me to ‘The Common Cause,’ a suffragist journal first published in April 1909 as  a mouthpiece for the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. Muriel was scheduled to deliver a series of speeches and talks in Scotland in late April 1913.  A former actress, she would have been brilliant addressing a crowd and, indeed, the Bexhill on Sea Observer described her in 1911 as speaking with eloquence, a ‘graceful figure in white‘ … ‘possessing a storehouse of knowledge which few young ladies of the movement could rival.’   Somewhat patronising, yes, but it sounds like the unnamed journalist was impressed with our Muriel.

As for Muriel being responsible for placing a bomb in suburban Stockport in 1913, I doubt it.  I’d far more likely place it at Kitty Marion’s feet…

Finally, a photo of Manchester’s 200th anniversary commemoration of the Peterloo Massacre.  Unlike 1819  when the 16th of August was a fabulously hot summer’s day, the 16th of August 2019 was not!  Holding an umbrella and camera was difficult…

Why have I hooked this on at the end of today’s blog?  Because of the many similarities between inequalities in the UK for 1819 and 2019….   A battle I am sure both Kitty Marion and Muriel Matters would have embraced.

Peterloo Commemoration, Manchester 16 August 2019 © Adèle Emm

 

 

Miss Muriel Matters -oh no she doesn’t- oh yes she does

In the current political turmoil, today’s topic is by-elections and concerns a previous resident of my South Manchester home, staunch Conservative voter Francis William Johnstone. Aged about 40 in 1908, he unexpectedly found himself swept up in feminist politics.

The Grille Incident

Miss Muriel Matters chained to the grille. from House of Commons Library, Illustrated London News.  Published 7 November 1908. Their copyright.

April 1908 and Manchester was holding a by-election.  Three candidates were in the race and their nominations meeting was held in Manchester Town Hall on the morning of 21st April.   You may have heard of Winston S Churchill (1874-1965) – he was standing as a Liberal.  His rivals; William Joynson-Hicks (Conservative/Unionist) and Dan Irving (Labour/Socialist).  Attending this meeting and supporting  Mr Joynson-Hicks and was my  Francis William.

Suddenly, two women, members of the Women’s Freedom League (founded 1907 as a breakaway from Emmeline Pankhurst’s WSPU) demanded to know if they could submit nomination papers for women. Of course Australian actress Miss Muriel Matters (1877-1969) and Mrs Manson were refused. Mrs Manson demanded why not.  Churchill ignored them.

When Francis William returned home, did he tell his wife about the interruption?  Was he furious or sympathetic to the cause?  I suspect not. Francis must have been reminded of his encounter just a few months later.

On 28th November, Muriel Matters and fellow conspirator Helen Fox hit the national headlines by chaining themselves to the grille in the Ladies Gallery of the Houses of Parliament.  Their confederate Violet Tillard lowered a banner down to the Chamber.  Unable to release the two women, they were carried – still attached to the grille –  to the committee room finally released by sawing through the chains.

I would love to know how his wife reacted.

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Emmeline Pankhurst statue in St Peter’s Square, Manchester. As a suffragist not a suffragette, I am no fan of hers.  © Adèle Emm

Madabout History

Madabout magazine 1983. It cost £1

A hoarder? Me? Never!  That trunk in my cellar has only been there umpty um years and for umpty um years I believed it  locked and the key well and truly lost. Except today I glanced at it and realised the latch was hanging loose. …  to cut to the chase, I rummaged inside and found…

  • lots of ‘lost’ documents from when I first started researching the Emm surname.
  • all my research books for the TV programme ‘Madabout’ transmitted from Tyne Tees in Newcastle. I worked on the second series.
  • lots of other stuff including family photographs (yes please).  I need to go through  it all but the spores from the cellar are somewhat interesting so I will take my time …

However, I am sharing this rare memento from 1983.  The BFI and IMDB have very little record of this show even though one of the episodes for which I was responsible, Madabout Flying, was nominated for BAFTA.  Not that I was invited to the ceremony….

Matthew Kelly was the presenter.  Diane Campbell the producer.

If anyone out there has any memories of this series: you took part;  you worked on the crew; you were a fan of the show, I would love to hear from you!

6th Emmposium 25 and 26th May 2019

Our New Zealand cousins standing outside a house in Bratton, Wiltshire, owned by Benjamin and Grace Emm in 1795

Well, what a weekend!  Thanks to everyone who turned up over two days at Bratton and Broad    Chalke, both Wiltshire.  As I keep reminding everyone, John Emm who married the Widow Rhysse was born around 1482 which makes our family as old as the New World.  Four Emms, my 6th cousins, joined us from the even younger new world, flying nearly 12,000 miles from New Zealand to be with us.  Here are David and Colin plus partners outside a house in Bratton owned by their 4th x great grandparents, Benjamin Emm and Grace nee Dew.

Jubilee Hall, Bratton. Some Emm trees.

First – an apology.  The main hall in Jubilee Hall, Bratton, is 25 yards long.  Our main tree didn’t fit into it.

John Emm who married the Widow Rhysse has 986 named descendants.   If I’d printed the tree starting with him,  the tree would have been 820 pages and over 4,647 metres long.  When Usain Bolt was the fastest man in the world, it would have taken 4.45 seconds to run!

I didn’t have the time or patience to join up all these sheets.   The tree in this photo  is 580 pages and over 41 meters long (46 yards).   We cut it in half but placing it along the other side of the hall meant no one could use the lavatories unless they jumped over the tree.  Not a good idea when several Emmses were over 90.     As there are other Emm trees which don’t yet fit in, John Emm has many more descendants…

Emms Lane, Bratton, is named after James Emm (1768-1833) who owned the farm at the top of the lane.   Here  are some of us  correcting the punctuation in our lane.

Sunday’s venue, Broad Chalke, is where Emms have lived for nearly 300 years.   Although one of my cousins goes back several generations,  there is a gravestone in the  Unitarian Church graveyard for someone he cannot  identify. Petty Officer  AJ Emm, served on HMS Jamaica and died, aged 22, on the 19th September 1946.   As a member of the Guild of One Name Studies, I am duty bound to research this tragic young man.

Petty Offficer Albert James Emm. Gravestone in Broad Chalke

Checking  www.freebmd.org.uk I find Albert J Emm’s death registered in Dartford, Kent.   Albert James was a local boy, his birth registered in Wilton in December 1923. He’s my 5th cousin once removed.   In Knighton, Broad Chalke,  heart broken parents  Albert John Emm and Daisy Eliza nee Holmes brought him home to be buried.  Should I pay for his death certificate and find out what happened to him?

Finally, my latest book, Tracing your Female Ancestors, has arrived in bookshops.   You can buy it via  Pen and Sword  or Amazon.   Within the book are several references to Emm and other ancestors. The ladies on the front cover are all mine. ..    Not the mermaid, of course!

6th Emmposium – facts and statistics

Bratton, the genealogical home of many an Emm

The 6th Emmposium is taking place in Wiltshire this weekend so, anyone with the surname Emm, married to an Emm, married out of an Emm or with Emm grandparents and ancestors,  please contact me for details…

In the meantime, to whet your appetite, here are some Emmstatistics about this weekend’s event.

  • the main Emm tree consists of 580 pages.
  • It took 4 rolls of sellotape to stick together
  • It’s  roughly 46 yards long – (41 meters) consisting of
  • 4 rows of 145 A4 pages
  • Usain Bolt  would take 3.82 seconds to run the length of it
  • the London Walter Thomas Emm  tree is now 75 pages as is
  • the Betty Emm married Thomas  Emm tree

The Saturday event displays the trees – a logistical conundrum in itself plus spreadsheet of every Emm who appears in the 1939 Register unless they are still  a ‘closed record.’  I shall be giving a very short talk about the life of agricultural labourers and the reasons for families moving to different Wiltshire villages throughout the censuses and why they moved out of the area.

Sunday, is as always, a Sunday walk in Broad Chalke, Wiltshire.

So please contact me to join us.

Coping through – commemorating the craft of dry stone wallers

Dry stone wall near Howarth, Yorkshire © Adèle Emm

Another eclectic post. Sorry!  I had the most fabulous day in Yorkshire yesterday: sun, sky and dry stone walls, the iconic feature ooop in t’north...   Who would have thought there were so many styles of walls  all built without mortar?

Such walls, often constructed hundreds of years ago, were constructed to contain  sheep – England, of course,  amassed vast amounts of money through the wool trade but subsistence farmers up in such inhospitable terrain had little money;  they needed to protect what livestock they had.  Drovers’ roads were walled to prevent sheep straying onto another man’s lands. These walls provide shelter for ewes and their lambs when the weather – as so frequently does up here – suddenly turns nasty.  The walls also act as firebreaks (wooden fencing is merely more tinder, fire fodder for flames) and, when Lyme Park has just lost acres of vegetation just this week, Ilkley Moor is still burning at the time of writing and Saddleworth Moor  similarly and disastrously affected last year, such firebreaks are indispensable.

The golden age of professional dry stone wallers was the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when fields were expanded to  encompass  larger mechanised agricultural machinery developed, by necessity, during the population explosion of the industrial revolution.  Today,  few people want this job.  It’s generally poorly paid, hard physical work often under  appalling weather conditions.   Dry stone labourers were itinerant,  travelling through remote areas lodging when and where they could.   Take 70 year old Lancashire born William Angus.   In the 1851 census, living with his family at 38 Craven Street, Bradford, Yorkshire, he was enumerated as dry stone waller. The visible work of such men is a testament to their skill although their names are forgotten.   Marvel at their results.

Dry stone wall near Haworth, Yorkshire, clearly showing copestones at the top and throughstones in the middle. © Adèle Emm

Let’s name some  more Yorkshire dry stone wallers as enumerated in the 1851 census.

  • William Brook, 55, living at 32 Rantnor Street, Bradford; born Settle, Yorkshire
  • James Schofield, 54, at Waterstalls in Todmorden, Yorkshire, born Lancashire
  • John Howarth, 29, of Frenches, Saddleworth, born Bolton, Lancashire
  • Yorkshire born John, 54, and son Thomas Sunderland, 23, living at 12 Delph Terrace, Leeds

They are forgotten no more…

yet another dry stone wall near Haworth, Yorkshire.  © Adèle Emm

 

For more information about dry stone walling, visit the Dry Stone Walling Association or the National Trust which has volunteering schemes.

Passing through…

The Cockaynes lived here in 1939

A few months ago, I wrote of a young man who lived in my house in 1911 and died aged 17 in World War 1.  This year marks the centenary of the start of WW2 so it seemed fitting to look into the life of someone else who lived in my road but in September 1939.  Preferably a happier story!

War was declared on the 3rd September and on the 29th, a register taken of everyone in the country exempting those already in military service. There were two purposes; to issue National Identity cards and subsequent ration books.  In 1948, three years after the war ended, the number on the ID card became their National Health Service number.  However,  records were amended right into the 1950s; so, should a woman marry, her new name was superscribed over her maiden name – really useful for family historians.    Access to the 1939 Register is via subscription sites Ancestry and FindMyPast.

In 1939, the residents in my leafy suburban Stockport street included a retired umbrella factory manager (it’s always raining in the North West), a retired head postmaster and a barrister at law.  Considering the proximity of the local station, it’s not surprising several commercial travellers also resided here and in neighbouring roads. Three minutes’ walk and the rail network could transport them countrywide.  Several households had live-in servants, somewhat of a feat considering how difficult it was to retain them after the social upheaval of WW1.

As befitting the start of a war, there were two ARPs (Air Raid Precautions i.e. wardens) in the road; one full time and the other working in ‘control’ in Manchester.  It’s the story of the full-time ARP I’m writing about today.  Just another ordinary chap from an ordinary family in an ordinary suburban street.    Or was he?

The head of the Cockayne family was Thomas Strafford  (also recorded as Stafford and Stratford) Cockayne, the aforementioned retired head postmaster.  He lived in an Edwardian semi with wife Christine and their 32 year old unmarried son Leslie, a solicitor’s clerk, our ARP.

Checking daddy in the 1881 census, 14 year old Thomas lived with his parents, lowly lodgers in Stockport Road, Gorton, a far earthier working class area than their 1939 home.  Thomas’ father was a master tailor born in Glossop, Derbyshire, employing three men and a boy.  A decade earlier and this family, with 4 year old Thomas in tow, lived in the Cheetham Hill area of Manchester – even grittier than Gorton.   His father, a jobbing tailor, provided for wife, several children, his wife’s mother and her sister.  Digging into the archives a little more, Thomas’ grandfather was a silk weaver.  Now these were highly skilled craftsmen but by the middle of 19th century industrialisation, their livelihood was increasingly threatened.

In 1901, Thomas was living with his in-laws and their unmarried daughters two roads from his future 1939 home.  He describes himself as a ‘civil servant,’  a world away  from the son of a tailor albeit a master.   Upwardly mobile, he’d married the daughter of a print agent.  Eight years later, and he is living in his own house, 11 Harley Street, Victoria Park, Manchester, a swish address though less so today.   He’s a government overseer and son Leslie is two years old.   The 1911 census records them still there;   he and his wife had had two children but only Leslie survived.   Was Thomas aspiring to relocate to that leafy suburb where he’d lived just ten years earlier?

Fast forward to Thomas’ death in November 1952.  He died in Shaw Heath in the former workhouse now hospital,  his home address the same as in 1939, and he bequeaths over £2,799 to solicitor son Leslie.  What a success!  A jobbing tailor’s son rises to a high level job in the Post Office, one of the most prestigious employers of the day.

I can’t find records of Leslie marrying but he dies in Stockport Infirmary in 1963 having lived in the same house since the start of the WW2.  He left over £2,852.

I’ve long believed  that we don’t own our house.  We just pass through.  This sentiment is endorsed in the second BBC series of the fabulous A House Through Time  presented by David Olusoga.  My Edwardian street is testament to this.

Selling Grandma!

I have long been accused of this peccadillo. And why not?  I’m sure neither of them would mind…

I recently received an email out of the blue from an umpty umpth cousin descended via the Mapley branch of my family tree. Needless to say, I‘d never heard of him!  Mapley is quite an obscure and rare surname; it’s not even listed in my copy of the Oxford Dictionary of English Surnames although Mabberely, Mabley and variations are.    In 1891, according to Ancestry.co.uk, 84 families with this surname lived in Buckinghamshire and made up 57% of UK Mapleys – including my mob.

My newly-acquired cousin is directly descended from my great grandma’s sister, Nell.  Nell married Andrew Frederick Mapley (known as Fred) who owned a baker’s in Newport Pagnell High Street a few doors down from his father-in-law’s rival bakery.

Now I know about this family because my grandfather grew up at the Mapley bakery following his father’s untimely death aged 28 (TB).   My granddad wasn’t particularly fond of Auntie Nell but his cousins were like brothers and sisters, and I met some with my grandfather.

I’ve written about Fred before (Family Tree Magazine, Christmas 2017).  He mysteriously disappeared in late 1912; just didn’t arrive home one evening.  The following April, his body, virtually unidentifiable except for his clothing, washed up in the River Ouse.  Was he pushed, did he slip, did he jump? No option is palatable. The first thing my new cousin told me was that the family believed Fred had committed suicide because his business was in debt.  I’ve seen the death certificate and the coroner, as befitted attitudes then, was diffident about apportioning such a damning verdict. The entry concluded, ‘No evidence as to how body got into water.’

Back to selling grandma….    or should it be grandpa?

A photo of the bakery belonging to both my and my new cousin’s great-something-grandfather, is on the front cover of one of my books.  It was at this bakery that my granddad’s Auntie Nell grew up, presumably over the shop.  Also on the front cover is Harry Mapley, one of her sons who died aged 27.

And now, thanks to my cousin Dean, I have a photo of Auntie Nell and Uncle Fred. Curiously, my granddad never mentioned him.  I put it down to the Victorian sense of shame tainting even a hint of suicide.    I shan’t be selling this photo.  It’s not mine to sell….

But I have put some family on the front cover of my next book . Naughty me….

I had a little bird, It’s name was Enza, I opened the window, and in-flu-enza

This little ditty was a skipping song chanted  by children during 1918 and 1919.

Although WWI ended on the 11th November 1918, deaths continued into the following year and beyond.   Why?  Firstly, there was the second wave of Spanish Flu (some historians believe the first wave shortened WWI by several months if not years) the virulence of which killed up to 50 million globally  – nobody knows the accurate figure.  And secondly, many young men who returned injured from the front died a protracted death from wounds. However today I’m writing about Spanish Flu.

This virulent pandemic seriously misrepresents Spain. It got its name when the virus migrated from France to Spain where, without the censorship of war, it was more widely reported.

Because of the different policies, some areas were particularly badly hit; Leicester and Coventry suffered high casualties – one in four deaths in 1918 were from influenza – but Manchester (over 2000 deaths in 1918 rising to 3143 by 1919) got off relatively lightly.  Here, James Niven, Manchester’s Medical Officer of Health, realising the virus attacked the lungs, recommended personal sanitation and isolation if ill.  He suggested closing dance halls, theatres and schools but his exhortations to avoid crowded places were ignored during celebrations for Armistice Day and Manchester deaths peaked in late 1918 and early 1919.     Overall 228,000 people in Britain were to die a particularly gruelling death for both patient and those nursing them.

Unlike other epidemics, victims were generally younger and fitter; the majority of afflicted were aged between 20 and 45.  It attacked all classes not just the poor and was a particularly upsetting death starting with ‘la grippe’ before quickly developing into pneumonia or, more distressingly, heliotrope cyanosis when the skin turned lavender, mahogany coloured spots appeared on cheekbones and ears (indicating a shortage of oxygen) and a person who was well in the morning suffocated and could be dead by dinnertime.

How do you know if an ancestor was a casualty of the Spanish Flu?    Few doctors wrote influenza on a death certificate.  The key clue is the timing – 1918 and early 1919.  If an ancestor died during this period  aged under, say, 50 and you read pneumonia or septicaemia on the death certificate, they probably died of Spanish flu.  And yes, I have spotted it on death certificates in my family….

Rags, rugs and recyling

I can’t resist showing off my latest project; the rag rug as shown here.  It only took me ten

rag rug © Adèle Emm

years to finish. Mind you, for nine of those years, it was stashed under the sofa in my study due to my running out of rags and stamina.

Rag rugs were a practical solution to flag floors in an age when every penny was the buffer between survival and the workhouse.   These unique works of art protected toes against icy floors and cheered up homes with few comforts and fewer luxuries.

Made out of any old rags, cotton, wool and whatever was to hand, the whole  family contributed to their manufacture; tearing up rags and knotting them into the hessian, jute or potato sacks which formed the backing. They were virtually indestructible, easily washed and easily replaced. All it took was a little effort and, with few other diversions available to working class families during the nineteenth century, plenty of time.

Originally, paper was made from rags.  Rag and bone merchants made their living sorting rags and selling them on.  Clothing had an economic value and was sold second/third hand. Once too shabby even for the destitute, rags were destined  to be ground down and processed into paper at a paper factory.    ‘Good Mrs Brown’ in Charles Dickens’ novel Dombey and Son (1848) made her living as a rag woman (the colloquial term for a female rag merchant was bunter). Her room was described thus: ‘there was a great heap of rags lying on the floor; a heap of bones, and a heap of sifted dust or cinders; but there was no furniture at all , and the walls and ceilings were quite black’.

Rags had to be dry before they could be sold.  White rags made more money fetching between 2-3d a lb with coloured rags at about 2d a lb.  Grease extracted from rags (the mind boggles!) went into making soap.

There was tax to be paid on newspaper.   in 1815, the government raised the Stamp Duty (the official name for the tax) to 4d which meant the average cost for one newspaper was 6-7d (there were 12 old pence in a shilling) a huge amount for the working class to trump up – so they didn’t.  After the Peterloo Massacre, 1819 (see my previous blog), the Stamp Duty was extended to include leaflets and pamphlets thus, the government hoped, suppressing ‘seditious’ anti-government proselytisation.  The Stamp Tax was repealed in 1855.

Towards the end of Victoria’s reign, paper was more commonly made from wood pulp  and the price of rags slumped.  With rags more readily available, rag rugs became more common beside the bed, in the kitchen, in front of the fire. When they got really dirty, they were thrown out; they had, after all, cost virtually nothing.

The National Trust occasionally runs rag rug making workshops.